by Adeline McCall
North Carolina Little Symphony
Editor & Program Director - Richard L Walker
Digitized by the Internet Archive
North Carolina Little Symphony
Season 19 7 8 - 19 7 9
TIPS TO TEACHERS
Copyright Adeline McCall, 1978
TIPS TO TEACHERS
by Adeline M c C a 1 1
How to Prepare Children for the North Carolina Symphony Concert 1,2
Children's Concert Program and List of Recordings . . . Season 1978-1979 3
Notes on the Children's Program... 4
OPENING NUMBER 4
"POSTHORN" SERENADE, No. 9 in D Major, K. 320— Mozart 4,5,6
Seventh Movement — Presto 7,8,9
THE FOUR SEASONS — Vivaldi 10,11
"SPRING" - Concerto No. 1 in E Major
Song: NOW LET EVERY TONGUE ADORE THEE — Bach 12
CLASSICAL SYMPHONY, Op. 25 — Prokofiev 13,14
Third Movement — Gavotte
Fourth Movement — Finale
THE PERCUSSION SCORE ] 5
PETITE SUITE — Debussy 16,17,18
Song: SWEET NIGHTINGALE — English Folk Song 19
FACADE — Walton 20,21
C ountry Dance
Poems — Facade — by Edith Sitwell 22,23,24
HOW TO PREPARE CHILDREN
NORTH CAROLINA SYMPHONY CONCERT
For more than thirty years children in North Carolina's public schools have
attended symphony concerts in widely scattered communities throughout the state.
As the orchestra travels from one place to another they enjoy playing for the en-
thusiastic, well prepared audiences that greet them. If the North Carolina
Symphony's educational program has succeeded in developing young music lovers, it
is largely due to the hundreds of devoted teachers who work for weeks in advance
of the orchestra's arrival to stimulate their students' interest. An important
part of preparation for the concert is to familiarize children with the music
through listening to recordings, creating free dance movement, and expressing
their impressions in a variety of art-related activities.
In today's schools, with the time limitations inherent in a varied
curriculum, it may be difficult to develop fully the many aspects of concert
preparation. But by starting as far as possible before the orchestra arrives,
and by involving interested resource people as helpers you can make your children's
concert a real success. Also, keep in mind the possibility of using the symphony
recordings and the resource materials after the concert . Children's interest in
the music may be even greater once they have had the experience of seeing the
orchestra and hearing a live performance.
HOW TO BEGIN
ORDER THE RECORDINGS. These are listed with the children's program on page 3.
To facilitate the circulation of records, one complete set for eyery
six or eight teachers is recommended,
ORDER SYMPHONY STORIES. Each child should have his own individual copy of
these booklets. Materials printed in Symphony Stories are copyrighted,
and may not be duplicated.
Address all orders to the North Carolina Symphony, Richard L. Walker, Director of
Education, P. 0. Box 28026, Raleigh, North Carolina 27611
SOME SUGGESTIONS ON CONCERT PREPARATION
The Little Symphony
Season 1978 - 1979
1. See that principals, teachers, and school administrators have THE DATE,
THE DAY OF THE WEEK, and THE HOUR of the children's concert set in their
schedules. Also, be sure to inform cafeteria managers, librarians, special
aides and assistants about the concert. Follow up with announcements at
teachers' meetings, P T A meetings, and on bulletin boards.
2. Arrange for a director of transportation to work out bus schedules, and
notify local police to cooperate in providing an escort, and blocking streets.
3. Make a seating plan for the concert, and send copies to all schools, with
directions for entering and leaving the concert hall.
4. Schedule in-service teachers' workshops to present the program of the
children's concert: teach the two songs; teach the percussion score; show
films and filmstrips; demonstrate creative movement; suggest art possibilities;
encourage original writing on various phases of the program.
5. Give the children's concert program as early as possible to all school
librarians. See that the recordings are catalogued and made ready for cir-
culation. Ask the librarians as resource teachers to plan for the viewing of
films and filmstrips; to set aside reference shelves on the composers; to
include information about the music and the composers in their story hours.
6. Classroom teachers have a most important role in making symphony preparation
an interesting and exciting experience. In some elementary schools teachers
plan "mini-workshops," sharing their ideas and demonstrating various aspects
of their children's creative activities with others. In an auditorium or
multi-purpose room three or four grades can assemble for an hour or more.
It should be the responsibility of one teacher to have the floor or stage
cleared, and to set up the record player in advance.
7. In schools with central public address systems, special programs may be
presented for classroom listening. The programs might be planned by a
principal, an interested parent, a musician from the community, a child, or
a group of children.
8. Players in high school or junior high school orchestras are sometimes avail-
able to bring their instruments and give a classroom demonstration.
9. Consult local radio or television stations for a possible tie-in with the
CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES TO ENCOURA GE
1. Learning to recognize the orchestral instruments by sight and sound.
2. Reading books and viewing filmstrips or films related to the symphony orchestra
3. Writing and illustrating stories about composers and their music.
4. Painting murals, posters, pictures; constructing simple percussion instruments.
5. Creating free movement from original ideas; dancing to the music.
6. Writing a puppet play; making the puppets and constructing a stage.
7. Making illustrated "symphony" notebooks; planning bulletin board displays.
THE NORTH CAROLINA LITTLE SYMPHONY 1978—1979
John Gosling, Artistic Director/Conductor
James Edwin Ogle, Jr., Associate Conductor
Benjamin F. Swalin, Conductor Emeritus
ENGLISH FOLK SONG
To be announced
POSTHORN" SERENADE, No. 9 in D Major, K. 320 Columbia MS 7273
Seventh Movement - Presto
THE FOUR SEASONS
"Spring" - Concerto No. 1 in E Major
Song: NOW LET EVERY TONGUE ADORE THEE
CLASSICAL SYMPHONY, Op. 25
Third Movement -- Gavotte
Fourth Movement -- Finale
PETITE n SUITE
Song: SWEET NIGHTINGALE
S - 37064
B L #55
GOOD CONCERT MANNERS
Come in quietly and take your seat.
Do not talk or move around during the concert.
Watch the conductor for the signal to stand and sing
When the concert is over leave quietly and go
to your bus.
NOTES ON THE PROGRAM
I. OPENING NUMBER. The Orchestra Director will announce the opening
number from the stage. The work will be chosen from the North Carolina
Little Symphony's touring repertoire.
II. "POSTHORN" SERENADE, No. 9 in D Major, K.320 Columbia
Seventh Movement - Presto MS 7237
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
(baptised Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus)
1756 - 1791
In the second half of the eighteenth century an instrumental form of music
developed which combined the features of the suite and those of the symphony.
The music was composed mainly to celebrate a festive occasion or to honor a
birthday, and was intended for outdoor performance. Compositions of this
type were known as serenades, cassations and divertimenti. They consisted
of a varying number of relatively short movements, nearly always including
minuets, and often rondos, variations, or marches. They were written for
strings, winds or mixed groups, usually with one or two players to each part.
The serenade differed from the cassation and divertimento only in name.
"Serenade" indicated an evening performance. In Vienna during the classic
period, serenades were so popular that on summer nights street musicians
found eager listeners at the open windows, and crowds surrounding them to
The "Posthorn" Serenade in D Major, K. 320, was written in Salzburg, and
dated August 3rd, 1779. Although it has been suggested that Mozart intended
it for the name day (September 30) of his patron, the Archbishop of Salzburg,
there has been no definite proof. However, it was recorded by Walter Hummel
(Nannerl Mozart's Tagebuchblatter, p. 61) that on the evening of September 24,
1779, it was played in the Universitatsplatz in Salzburg. At a concert of
Mozart's in Vienna on March 23, 1783, the third and fourth movements were per-
formed in the presence of the Emperor.
The score of the "Posthorn" Serenade calls for 2 flutes, piccolo, 2 oboes,
2 bassoons, 2 horns, solo post horn, 2 trumpets, timpani and strings. There
are seven movements: 1) Adagio maestoso; Allegro con spirito 2) Menuetto:
Allegretto; Trio 3) Concertante; Andante grazioso 4) Rondo: Allegro ma non
troppo 5) Andantino 6) Menuetto; Trio I and II (Post horn solo)
7) Finale: Presto.
In the Sixth Movement, which includes the post horn solo, Mozart wrote a
second Minuet. The first Minuet was in the Second Movement. Unlike the
first Minuet which had only one trio, this second one has two trios. It is
in the second Trio that the post horn is heard. Since the orchestra will not
play this movement at the concert, you may find it interesting to tell your
children about this unusual instrument and let them hear the recording in
the classroom. The post horn is a coil-shaped bugle, played by mail coachmen.
For references consult your school library.
"Posthorn" Serenade - Seventh Movement, Finale: Presto
In the last movement of the "Posthorn" Serenad e Mozart brings the festive
spirit of the music to a fast and brilliant conclusion. Analyzing the short
themes, and tracing their recurrences is like trying to catch a firefly. With
modulations into new keys, changes of register, transfers to different instru-
ments, embellishments and variations the ear is stimulated to a high level of
enjoyment. Familiarity with the music, and free unstructured enjoyment should
be the focus for classroom listening.
The over-all form, not rigidly adhered to (a mark of Mozart's creative genius)
might be thought of in a general way as something like this:
A B A 1 Closing section (like a Coda)
The first theme is the rhythmic and melodic figure below, interspersed later
with other themes in rondo-like fashion:
#4$ fit Tiff \f*-
Classroom activities might include:
1. Listening one by one to the other six movements of the serenade.
2. Learning more about the concerto form and its history
See Apel : Harvard Dictionary of Music , pp. 171 - 175
(This escellent reference book should be in all school libraries.)
3. Finger painting to the music.
4. Reading books and seeing filmstrips about Mozart.
5. Planning and collecting pictures for bulletin board displays.
About the Composer — "MOZART IS ONE OF THE BRIGHTEST STARS IN THE
MUSICAL FIRMAMENT ... HIS PRODUCTIVITY
...Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born in Salzburg, January 27, 1756 and died
in Vienna, December 5, 1791.
...Wolfgang's father, Leopold, came from a family of bookbinders in Augsburg.
They were able to give him a good education which provided a fine back-
ground for teaching his own son. At Augsburg Leopold was taught not only
Latin, Greek, French, Italian, history and mathematics but elements of
geology, chemistry, physics, botany, anatomy and astronomy. He owned two
microscopes, a telescope, a globe and an atlas; he was a boy singer and also
received lessons in organ and violin-playing, and he took prominent parts
in classical and religious plays. He went to Salzburg University at the age
of eighteen - presumably to be educated for the priesthood - but after two
years he left. Free to pursue his musical talents, he became a composer,
wrote a treatise on Violin Playing (which made him famous) and served as a
musician in the Salzburg Kapelle for forty years under five prince-archbishops.
...Wolfgang's mother, Anna Maria, came from a musical family. Her father,
Wolfgang Nikolaus Pertl , was a bass singer and choirmaster at the church of
St. Peter. He died suddenly when Anna Maria was only four, and although he
was reckoned a high official in Salzburg's court service, his widow was faced
with debts and the prospect of raising her family on a \/ery small pension.
...Anna Maria grew up to be a fine looking girl and Leopold was attracted to her
as soon as he met her. Their wedding was in the cathedral on November 21,
1747. Leopold, 28, and his bride, 27, were known as the "handsomest couple"
in Salzburg. They lived on the third floor of the house which still stands
at No. 9 Getreidegasse, known as the Mozart birthplace.
...The marriage was a happy one, although Leopold and Anna Maria were opposites
in many ways. She was "uneducated" but intelligent and affectionate. During
the many anxieties that life presented they never quarreled or found their
love under a strain. Even the difficulties of illness and financial stress
were no threat.
...The loss of five children out of seven -- three of them in the first three
years of married life — was reason enough for Anna Maria's ill health. In
the eighteenth century little was known about child-rearing or hygiene. It
was thought "vulgar" to keep infants on mother's milk, or on milk at all and
they were put out to be wet-nursed and then fed on honey and water or broth
mixed with a physician's patent powder.
...After a visit to a health resort Anna Maria gave birth to a fourth child,
Maria Anna Walburga, known throughout her life as "Nannerl," talented musician
and sister of Mozart. Four and a half years after Nannerl's arrival, and the
loss of two infants in between, the seventh and last and greatest child,
Wolfgang Amadeus, came into the world.
...Wolfgang's father realized from the yery beginning that his son's remarkable
musical gifts needed to be understood, nurtured, and developed. Accordingly,
the education of Wolfgang and of his talented sister, Nannerl, became the
driving force in his life. Thanks to his superior music instruction both
children were excellent performers, and were ranked as prodigies.
.It was reported that the rejected young suitor was broken-hearted.
Almost immediately, however, he sat down at the piano and played the opening
of a popular song, "I'm glad to heave the girl who doesn't want me." Further
balm for his broken heart was a growing affection for Constanze, the third
unmarried Weber daughter. His courtship, somewhat hampered by the distract-
ing weeks during the final preparation for the production of "The Seraglio"
in July, 1782, came to a conclusion on August 4th when he and Constanze
were married. The wedding, though not a grand affair, took place in
St. Stephen's Cathedral, and was followed by an elaborate supper given by
.Little did the couple realize that Mozart had only nine more precious years
to live. They were years of incredible creativity despite the handicaps of
poverty, illness, unfulfilled aspirations, and domestic turbulence. Constanze
proved to be a careless housekeeper, and, as in the case of her mother-in-law,
the yearly pregnancies and infant deaths undermined her health. Mozart, al-
ways hopeful of future affluence, spent his meagre income freely on fine
clothes, the entertainment of friends, and in pursuit of such pleasures as
dancing and playing billiards. He never indulged in excessive drinking; was
always moderate despite gossip to the contrary. Leopold's unyielding oppo-
sition to the marriage never changed, but on a visit to Vienna he was pleased
to find his son's finances in good order, his wife's health improved, and a
new grandson (Karl Thomas, Mozart's second child, born September 21, 1784.)
Karl was to survive the whole family. An official in the Austrian finance
department, he died unmarried at the age of 74. He was a gifted pianist.
The years preceding Mozart's final decline in health and death were filled
with brilliant successes: concerts attended by royalty and by an admiring
aristocracy, opera performances that brought him unrivalled fame. All this,
and his indefatigable work did not secure him against financial embarrassment.
After he became a Freemason he had friends who understood his needs, and
could offer help in times of distress. A long hoped-for post of musical
director at St. Stephen's would have been his had he lived two years longer.
And it would have freed him of the necessity to teach pupils which he did to
supplement his income, but heartily disliked.
On July 26, 1791, five months before Mozart died, Constanze gave birth to a
second son, Franz Xaver Wolfgang, later known as Wolfgang Amadeus. Intended
from the first for a musical career, he gave concerts, held posts as music-
master to two noble families. After a long musical tour in 1819, he settled
in Lemberg where he spent the rest of his life composing, conducting and
While Mozart was working on his opera, "The Magic Flute," in the middle of
July, 1791, a mysterious stranger dressed in gray appeared at his house,
requesting that he write a requiem. A large sum of money was offered with
the stipulation that he not inquire into the source of the commission.
Actually the stranger was the messenger of Count von Walsegg, who commissioned
musical works which he later claimed as his own. To Mozart, ill and obsessed
with thoughts of death, the stranger was mysteriously associated with his own
death. He said, "I know from what I feel that the hour is striking ... I
must finish my funeral song." But time ran out and it was left to Mozart's
pupil, Sussmayer, to complete it.
...Leopold's plan to launch his children in the aristocratic world of music
involved many tours through Europe, beginning when Wolfgang was six and
his sister ten. His main objective was go gain hearings at the most impor-
tant courts, especially those of the Emperor and the King of France. These
tours have been written about in a good many biographies and treated in
filmstrips for children.
...Leopold sought not so much to make money on the many concerts which he
scheduled but to gain recognition for his son's abilities so that in later
life he might succeed in attaining a position with a sovereign who had a
famous musical establishment. To this end he planned programs that included
letting Wolfgang play with a cloth covering the keyboard, going into an ad-
joining room and naming the notes played in the audience-chamber, then coming
in and playing passages he had heard through the door. As he grew older he
became extremely skilled at improvisation. His ear was so sensitive that
he could detect an eighth of a tone's difference in pitch. One of his feats,
often repeated as a mark of genius, was his ability to write down a work he
had heard from memory. He did this during Holy Week in Rome after listening
to Gregorio Allegri's Miserere mei Deus , a work in which five- voice and
four-voice choirs alternate, culminating in the use of all nine voices.
...If further proof were needed that Mozart's genius was recognizable at an
early age, here is a program of a concert given in Mantua on January 16, 1770,
on the Mozarts' Italian tour:
(To exhibit Wolfgang's versatility at the age of fourteen)
A symphony of his own composition
A harpsichord concerto which will be handed to him, and will be
played at sight
A Sonata handed him in like manner, and which he will provide
with variations, and afterwards repeat in another key
An Aria, the words for which will be handed to him, and which he
will immediately set to music and sing himself, accompanying
himself on the harpsichord
A Sonata for harpsichord on a subject given him by the leader of the
A Strict Fugue on a theme to be selected, which he will improvise
on the harpsichord
A Trio, in which he will execute a violin part all 'improvviso
Finally, the latest Symphony composed by himself.
...The journey was a triumph; his concerts were crowded; and in recognition
of his genius the Pope conferred on him the order of the Golden Spur.
...Returning to Salzburg to take up his duties as a court composer, he found
it impossible to accept the indignities which the new Archbishop, Hieronymus,
Count of Colloredo, heaped upon him. In 1777 Mozart's request for a leave
of absence was granted and, accompanied by his mother, he set out for Paris.
A year later his mother died, necessitating his return to Salzburg. By the
summer of 1781 the Archbishop's treatment of him had become unbearable, so
he left the court permanently and settled in Vienna.
...Mozart, now 25, was thinking of marriage. He had met the Weber family in
Mannheim, and fell in love with Aloysia, the oldest of five unmarried
daughters. Enthusiastic letters about the genial, rather bohemian Webers
reached Leopold and set up his suspicions. Mozart praised Aloysia 's voice,
predicting a great future for her in the opera. When her success in opera did
indeed materialize she let the ardent Wolfgang know in no uncertain terms
that she was now bent on a career, and had no intention of marrying a poor
young composer. Already her salary was three times as much as her father's!
...On December 4th Mozart asked to be propped up in bed. Calling his friends
to come close to him he gave them the manuscript of the Lacrimosa from the
Requiem, and asked them to sing it with him. In the middle he burst into
tears. Constanze's sister, Sophia, who had come to cheer him, was sent to
St. Peter's for a priest to administer extreme unction. The doctor came and
ordered cold compresses for his burning head. The shock was so great that he
never regained consciousness, and passed away in a coma an hour after mid-
night on December 5th. The Register of St. Stephen's Parish recorded his
death as due to "severe miliary fever." Medical research has corroborated
the fact that Mozart's fatal illness was Nephritis.
...The short funeral service, held in the Chapel in the north aisel of
St. Stephen's, was attended by male members of the family, by Baron van Swietan
and other noblemen, and by musicians and Freemasons. Because of the bad weather
the mourners did not follow the hearse on its journey outside the city to the
cemetery of St. Mark's. According to reports the funeral was as cheap as could
be had, documented as "3rd Class." The fee for the hearse and funeral train
has been estimated at $5.50.
...The coffin was buried in a "common" grave -- not as has been sometimes stated
a "pauper's" grave. A common grave was dug deep enough to hold a number of
bodies. The grave where Mozart was laid to rest had no marker. When Constanze
visited St. Mark's some years later she could not identify the spot where
her husband had been buried.
...Faced with bringing up two children on very limited resources, Constanze
petitioned the Emperor to grant her a pension. In this she succeeded, and
she was also successful in selling many of Mozart's manuscripts to the
publisher, Andre'. As time went on the incompetent young housewife was trans-
formed into a capable business women and a good mother. In 1809 she married
George Nikolaus Nissen, an official in the Danish diplomatic service. Upon
his retirement in 1839 he moved to Salzburg to write a biography of Mozart.
...Josef Haydn, a friend of Mozart's and an admirer for many years, sent this
message from London:
"Like a child I long to be home again to embrace my good
friends, only regretting that I cannot do this to the great
Mozart, if it is true — which I do not wish — that he is dead.
Posterity will not have such a talent again in 100 years."
The world of music has been enriched by the monumental work of Dr. Ludwig Ritter
von Kochel , Viennese musician, botanist and mineralogist, who numbered and
catalogued Mozart's compositions. The catalogue consists of some 600 authentic
works that have been preserved, and a large number which at the time of his re-
search were of doubtful genuineness. Few of the works were printed in Mozart's
lifetime, but have since been published. Beginning with K. 1 (Minuet and trio
for piano, learned by Wolfgang within half an hour on January 26, 1761, a day
before his 5th birthday).
III. THE FOUR SEASONS, Op. 8, Nos. 1 - 4 Nonesuch H-71070
"Spring" -- Concerto No. 1 in E Major
1675-78 -- 1741
Antonio Vivaldi, known as the Red Priest, spent many years of his
life teaching, composing and playing the violin. Included in his
compositions there were over four hundred and fifty concertos
for various instruments.
Among Vivaldi's sets of concertos there is one called The Trial between
Harmony and Invention ("II Cimento dell'Armonia e dell ' Inventione" ).
This set, Op. 8, includes twelve violin concertos. The first four of
the twelve, conceived separately as a cycle, are known as The Concerti
of the Seasons ("I concerti dell a stagioni"). The Four Seasons - Spring,
Summer, Autumn and Winter ("La primavera," "L'estate," "L'autunno," and
"L'inverno") -- have been performed many times as a separate group, and
especially in recent years have become popular with concert audiences.
The Four Seasons , published in 1725, is traditionally thought of as
program music since the composer has tried to describe various aspects
of spring, summer, autumn and winter. Each concerto is prefaced by a
poem, suggesting something about the contents of the piece. Over the
score Vivaldi added comments from time to time further clarifying
Each of the four concertos has three movements, cast in the customary
fast-slow-fast scheme, a standard form today as it was in Vivaldi's time.
The first movement of "Spring" - Allegro - is scored for strings. The
music speaks for itself to each listener; according to his mood and his
imaginative talents, he will paint his own picture. The following is
from Music Tells the Tale: A guide to Programme Music (Geoffrey Palmer
and Noel Lloyd; Warne, London).
"Spring" begins with a merry carefree tune played by the string orchestra
which makes us think of the countryside stirring after the rigours of
winter. The new leaves on the trees are touched by a fresh breeze, and a
winding stream ripples its way through the fields. One violin, later joined
by all the others, introduces us to the young birds calling to each other
with joyful chirps. The first tune returns to round off the picture.
Then, as if to remind us that such peace cannot last, a disturbing note
comes in. The droning of the cellos and double-basses hints of thunder.
It is not very heavy thunder, but enough to send the birds scurrying for
shelter. Violins rush up the scale—flashes of lightning translated into
sound. For a time the music is rather sombre, but the storm never really
develops. The thunder fades out, the birds pop their heads out of their
nests again, and the opening tune returns, as carefree as ever, then slows
down at the end of the movement in a way which is typical of early music."
The first movement of "Spring" combines short repeated themes with
interludes of clearly descriptive music:
a a(soft) b b(soft) c(bird trills, etc.)
a d b(lower key) e(thunder and lightning)
b (minor key) Interlude (minor) (bird trills)
a (Major key) Interlude (Major) b b(soft)
A Theme B Theme
About the composer
...Antonio Vivaldi was born in Venice between 1675 and 1678, and died in Vienna
in 1741. He was the son and pupil of Giovanni Battista Vivaldi, a violinist
at St. Mark's Cathedral in Venice. Little is known about his childhood. As
a young man he decided to enter the priesthood. Accordingly, he went through
the preliminary ritual of head-shaving (the tonsure) in 1693, and took his
Holy Orders in 1703.
...Whether it was because of his carrot-colored hair or the crimson robes he
insisted on wearing Vivaldi was known as the Red Priest. Whatever the reason
may have been his priesthood came to an end in one year and Vivaldi was free
to pursue his life as a musician.
...Before leaving the priesthood he had been denied the priviledge of saying Mass.
A rumor circulated that he had left in the middle of a service to write down
a theme that had just occurred to him. A more likely explanation was Vivaldi's
own, that he suffered from a chest ailment, an asthmatic condition which sub-
jected him to sudden unexpected attacks.
...Vivaldi spent many years teaching, composing and playing the violin. He was a
fine violinist, famous throughout the city. In 1709 he was appointed professor
of violin at the Girls' Conservatory of the Ospitale del la Pieta in Venice,
and seven years later was made Maestro of Concertos there.
...From 1725 to 1735 he spent most of his time travelling in Italy and in other
countries as a virtuoso performer and opera composer. Eventually he returned
to his position at the Pieta in Venice. Then he went to Vienna where he died
in abject poverty.
...In spite of the fame he enjoyed during his lifetime, Vivaldi was soon for-
gotten after his death. Johann Sebastian Bach is credited with reviving an
interest in the neglected composer. He modeled some of his concertos for
clavier and orchestra after Vivaldi. Arnold Schering, in 1905, once and for
all gave Vivaldi the significance properly due him in his History of Instru-
mental Concertos. Then in 1926 came the magnificent discovery of a sizeable
collection of Vivaldi manuscripts which had been gathering dust in a library
at the Collegio San Carol. No one knows how the music got there, but it was
rescued and cataloged to form the major part of a collection for the Vivaldi
IV. SONG - NOW LET EVERY TONGUE ADORE THEE
Chorale Melody - Philipp Nicolai
From J. S. Bach's Cantata, "Sleepers, Wake"
Johann Sebastian BAch
1685 - 1750
The first song the children will sing at the concert is a Bach Chorale.
They must have both words and music memorized. Caution them to watch
the orchestra director for the signal to stand. As the children stand
quietly the orchestra will play the Chorale through once. Then the
director, facing the audience, will give the cue to begin singing. The
singers should continue to follow the director throughout the song for
changes in tempo and dynamics.
In preparing for the concert practice as much as possible without a piano
accompaniment, and emphasize smooth, legato singing style.
Now Let Every Tongue Adore Thee
Now let ev - 'ry tongue a - dore Thee!
All Thy gates with pearl are glo - rious!
Let men with an - gels sing be - fore Thee!
Where we par -take_ through faith vie - to - rious,
Let harps and cym - bals now .
With an - gels round Thy throne
No mor - tal eye hath seen,
No mor - tal ear hath heard
Such won-drous things, There - fore with joy our _ song shall boar
In praise to God for - ev - er
V. CLASSICAL SYMPHONY, Op. 25 TV-S 34599
Third Movement - Gavotte Turnabout
Fourth Movement - Finale
Serge Sergeyevich Prokofiev
1891 - 1953
Prokofiev's "Classical" Symphony was played for the first time in America in
1918. The New York audience was completely shocked by it. Instead of the big
orchestra they had expected to see, they were greeted by only a handful of mu-
sicians—two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two trumpets, two
horns, timpani and strings. But once they realized that Prokofiev was return-
ing to the classical style of the eighteenth century, using an orchestra the
size of Mozart's or Haydn's, they were charmed by the music. Although he
makes use of eighteenth century forms and melodic patterns the symphony is
genuinely Prokofiev's own unique creation. As you become acquainted with other
Prokofiev works you immediately begin to recognize his inimitable style, never
to be mistaken for the works of his classical predecessors.
The "Classical" Symphony has the traditional four movements:
I . Allegro con brio
II. Larghett o
III. Non troppo allegro - Gavotte
IV. Molto vivace - Finale
At the children's concert the orchestra will play only the third and fourth
movements for the "Classical" Symphony.
The third movement is a Gavotte , instead of the traditional minuet of the
classical symphonies. Tracing its ancestry as far back as 1588, the gavotte
did not come in vogue until the middle of the seventeenth century when Lully
introduced it into his ballets and operas.
The Gavotte opens with this spirited theme:
See the Percussion Score written for classroom use on the outside cover of
Symphony Stories. Instructions for teaching children how to play the score
are on page 15.
The fourth movement - Finale is a very fast (Molto vivace) piece. The
opening chord, marked fortissimo , is struck with full force by the strings
and timpani. This is the introduction to a Rondo with brilliantly orches-
trated themes being tossed about with playful abandon.
The "Classical" Symphony was named by Prokofiev himself, who said he hoped
the title would prove to be accurate if the symphony in the course of time
turned out to be a classic work.
About the Composer 14
...Serge Sergeyevich Prokofiev was born in Ekaterinoslav, Ukraine,
on April 23, 1891, and he died in Moscow, March 4, 1953.
...His father managed the large estate of a wealthy landowner. The
Prokofievs lived in a big white house surrounded by gardens and trees.
...Serge's mother was a good pianist, and there was much music in the
household. She gave her son his first piano lessons, and wrote down the
little pieces he composed to encourage his interest in music. Recalling
this period in his early life, Prokofiev said: "My efforts at that time
consisted of either sitting down at the piano and making up tunes which
I could not write down or sitting at the table and drawing notes which
could not be played. I just drew them the way other children drew trains
...By the time he was twelve years old Serge had written the words and music
of two operas, a set of twelve piano pieces and a symphony for four hands.
...In 1904, at the age of thirteen, he entered the Conservatory in St. Peters-
burg. He was the youngest student in his class, and his teachers — inclu-
ding Rimsky-Korsakoff and Liadoff—found him wonderfully creative and
brilliant, but disrespectful of the works of both traditional and contemp-
orary composers. He did not like Mozart; thought Chopin was "too sweet,"
and he said that audiences who raved over Rachmaninoff had poor taste.
...Despite his uncooperative ways, he graduated in ten years. The "young
rebel" learned discipline from his piano teacher, Madame Esipova, who
demanded that he play Schubert, Mozart and Chopin as the composers intended,
leaving off his own improvisations. Likewise, Nikolai Tcherepnin took him
in hand, saying, "You have no talent for conducting, but since you are
going to be a composer, and will often have to conduct your own works, I am
going to teach you how to conduct." He must have thanked these teachers
many times after becoming one of Russia's greatest pianists and a celebrated
...As a young man in his late twenties Prokofiev had already finished a large
number of impressive works. With the beginning of the revolution and civil
war he left Russia and went to Japan where he gave a series of concerts.
After two months he left for San Francisco where the United States authori-
ties held him on an island for three days as a "suspicious foreigner."
When he finally reached New York in September, 1918, he was penniless, but
cheered by newspaper reports calling him the "glittering hope of future
Russia," and "the most promising composer since Stravinsky."
...Prokofiev's difficulties with the Soviet Union and his final decision to
return "home," came after years of composing and performing in the United
States and in many parts of the world. For ten years his home was in Paris.
...It took him and his family some time to fit into the scheme of Russian
life, but Prokofiev enjoyed the privileges given Soviet composers. He had
a small house in the country, and his works were greatly in demand for
performances. Until the last days of his life he was a highly respected
composer in his country, decorated with the Order of the Red Banner, and
the recipient of many medals and prizes. Despite his distinguished symphonies,
operas and ballets, the world will probably remember him best as the composer
of "Peter and the Wolf."
THE PERCUSSION SCORE-GAVOTTE
TEACH CHILDREN TO PLAY the percussion score, GAVOTTE from Prokofieff s
Classical Symphony (Outside back cover of Symphony Stories . ) This is a
learning experience in note-reading for classroom use only. Percussion
instruments should not be brought to the symphony concert.
WHAT TO DO :
1. Play the recording for listening only a number of times.
Recording : Prokofieff Classical Symphony TV-S 34599
Third Movement: Gavotte Turnabout
Non troppo allegro
2. Discuss the gavotte. The gavotte was a seventeenth century dance,
supposed to have originated with the French people known as "gavots."
Contrary to the style of the minuet, the gavotte was a bold, spirited
dance in 4/4 meter, with an upbeat of two quarter notes, and with
the phrase beginning and ending in the middle of the measure.
Prokofieff 's Gavotte takes the place of the minuet in the third move-
ment of his Classical Symphony. Had Mozart written this symphony he
would have used a Minuet as his third movement.
Explain that the music is "stylized" and not meant for actual dancin g.
3. As children listen, help them discover that the Gavotte is in three-
part form (A B A).
4. Count the meter out loud: 3 4| 1234J 1234/ etc.
5. Try "conducting" the score: \. I <J. > \ V
6. Notice that in the score two lines are bracketed together. This means
that the instruments indicated in the first line, for instance,
(tambourines) play at the same time as the instruments indicated in
the second line (drums and cymbals). Follow a similar procedure for
the other pairs of lines bracketed together.
7. Clap the first beat in each measure; then clap the notes as written in
the percussion score. On the rests have the children put both hands on
their shoulders in order to keep the feeling for the rhythm going.
8. Before using instruments see that you have them all in place - one for
each child. You will need:
TAMBOURINES WOOD BLOCKS RHYTHM STICKS DRUMS CYMBALS
TRIANGLES MARACAS FINGER CYMBALS
Enjoy this classroom experience by playing
along with your children"
VI. PETITE SUITE
1862 - 1918
The Petite Suite , written in 1889, was originally a piano work for
four hands. The Suite has four movements:
1. "En Bateau"
The orchestration, recorded by Jean Marti non with the French National
Radio Orchestra, is scored for piccolo, flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons,
horns, trumpets, timpani, triangle, cymbals, tambourine, harp and strings.
At the North Carolina Symphony children's concert the second and fourth
numbers from the Petite Suite will be played.
CORTEGE, as its name implies, suggests a stately procession, perhaps in
honor of a celebrity on a festive occasion. The form of the composition
is ABA, built largely on three recurring themes:
**W ? > sis w
0t — I
A-a a b b (I)* a a (I) Glissando a' a'
B-c c (I) c c (I)c c (higher key)
A-a a b b a (woodwinds) a (strings) a(tutti)
2 concluding measures (harp and timpani)
*(I) means Interlude
BALLET, is a brilliant , vigorous piece of wirting which is sure to evoke
in the listener's mind visions of whirling ballet dancers in fluffy skirts
and toe slippers. The form of the music is ABA. The "A" sections are
in a brisk 2/4 meter; in contrast, the two "B" sections are in a waltz
rhythm 3/8 meter.
After listening to the recording a number of times, your children will be
able to identify the meter changes, and they may enjoy demonstrating them
with body movement. To embellish the movement two different groups of per-
cussion players might accompany the dancers. Each percussion group should
have a distinctive tone quality: the "A" group might be composed of the
metallic sounding, jingly instruments; the "B" group of the wooden or drum
The three main themes which supply the basic ideas for development in the
two sections are:
A section - Theme 1
A section - Theme 2
B section - Theme 1 (Tempo di Valse)
1 iiljj ^ i 1 ^ J J J^l f I
A NOTE ON FRENCH IMPRESSIONISM
The term "Impressionism" was first applied to a group of painters whose
objective was to capture an object at a given moment with its unique at-
mosphere caused by the combination of light and shade. The paintings,
mostly of nature and the outdoors, reflected vivid colors, not mixed on
the palette but by the eye of the viewer. Color was highlighted, and the
contours, in general, were left blurred.
Debussy resented having the term "Impressionism" applied to his music, but
the label was taken over by uncritical writers with the result that in
some standard volumes on music history Debussy is presented as being an
Impressionist composer. There was nothing blurred in Debussy's art, but
in his orchestrations he created colorful effects through the imaginative
use of different instruments.
About the Composer
.On August 22nd, 1862, Claude-Achille Debussy was born in a room over the
china and hardware shop run by his parents in the village of Saint Germain-
en-Laye, fifteen miles from Paris.
.The "Frencn-ness" of this section, known as "He de France," made it seem
appropriate that later the composer referred to himself as "Claude of France.
.Claude-Achille's ancestors were Burgundians who had no connection with
music or any of the arts. His father drifted from one ill-paid job to
another. Madame Debussy, the mother of five, coped as best she could to
raise her children on the family's limited income.
.It was fortunate for Debussy that his aunt, Clementine Debussy, took him to
live with her when he was six years old. This perceptive lady, who was
also the boy's godmother, discovered young Claude's musical talent, and
saw to it that he was given piano lessons.
.His music education progressed so well that at the age of ten Claude passed
the difficult entrance examination of the Paris Conservatory, and was ac-
cepted as a student.
.During the following eleven years at the Conservatory the boy succeeded
in shocking and horrifying his teachers with his bizarre playing, and his
total disregard for their set rules of harmonization. When his teacher,
Ernest Guiraud, asked him: "What rules then do you observe?" he answered:
"None--only my pleasure." Guiraud died before Debussy's original style
had become recognized as the work of a true genius.
.During his Conservatory days Debussy won a good many prizes, including the
coveted Prix de Rome . His sojourn in Rome lasted only two years; he hated
everything about Rome: its climate, the people, the Italian food, the
music and the restrictions under which he lived with the other students at
the Villa Medici .
.Back in Paris he was free to live and compose in his own way. In the cafes
he associated with the Symbolist poet, Stephen Mallarme' the Impressionist
painters, Manet, Renoir and Toulouse-Lautrec, with the eccentric composer
Eric Satie, and with others who were breaking the shackles of traditionalism
in the arts.
.He set up a house with Gabriel le Dupont ("Gaby of the green eyes") who
managed the household and made him comfortable and happy for the next ten
years. Succeeding her was Rosalie Trexier, a dressmaker, whom he married
on October 19, 1899. After a double divorce Debussy married Emma Bardac,
the wife of a wealthy banker. With her he lived the rest of his life, and
was devoted to her and to their little daughter, "Chouchou," born in 1905.
.The last days of Claude Debussy were filled with physical pain, and mental
anguish. He underwent two operations for cancer and then at the outbreak
of World War I his finances dwindled so that sometimes he did not have money
for fuel or food. He died on March 25, 1918, and his funeral took place
during a bombardment of Paris.
VII. SONG - SWEET NIGHTINGALE
Before the audience stands to sing two stanzas of "Sweet Nightingale" a
selected instrumental group, previously rehearsed, will play the song
through once. As a warning signal let the autoharps play two strong "F"
chords, counting tnree to each chord. The players start on the third count
of the second F chord.
Instruments to be in cluded in the Instrumental Group
Recorders, flutes, clarinets (key of G), small winds,
such as tonettes, melody flutes or song flutes. No brass
Violins (violas and cellos)
Melody bells, resonator or tone bells
Autoharps should be previously tuned.
INSTRUCTIONS FOR PLAYING
Wind instruments and strings play the entire song. Divide in two parts on
the fourth and fifth lines.
Bells play only the fourth and fifth lines (soprano voices).
Players should be seated together at the front, facing the orchestra, with
For pre-concert rehearsals in the schools, do not use a piano accompaniment.
The autoharp chords, strongly accented, should hold the players together.
The instrumental group is "on its own" at the concert, and is not expected to
play with the orchestra.
1. Pret - ty maid, come a
2. Pret-ty Bet - ty, don't
long! Don't you hear the fond song,
fail, For I'll car - ry your pail
5 ]) \ P J_+^
The sweet note of the night - in - gale flow ?
Safe - ly home on the road as we go . .
F C7 F <£? C7
Don't you hear the fond tale of the sweet night - in gale,
As she sings in the val - ley be - low
As she sings in the val - ley be - low.
Will iam Walton
BOL No. 55
The British composer, William Walton, wrote the music for FACADE when he
was nineteen. In the early twenties Walton's style of writing sounded so
shocking that he was considered the enfant terrible of English composers.
With the passage of time and the revolutionary changes that have altered
the course of contemporary music, to-day's listeners are charmed with the
freshness of style and unique imagination displayed in this composition.
It all came about when Walton was studying at Oxford. Here he met Sacheverell
Sitwell whose friendship and interest became a turning point in his life.
The Sitwell family, Sacheverell, Osbert and Edith, were people of wealth and
culture, with great influence in the world of art. When William Walton
had to leave Oxford because he failed the academic examination -- having
spent all of his time working on music -- the Sitwells took him to London
to 1 ive with them.
Before long he was involved in a collaboration with Edith Sitwell, who was
experimenting with abstractionist poetry. According to Osbert, music would
be a sort of facade for the poems. Walton had a series of long sessions with
Edith during which she read the words to him while he marked and accented
them to guide him in creating his music.
Facade turned out to be a setting for narrator and seven instruments of
twenty-one abstractionist poems, performed for the first time publicly
on April 27, 1926. Edith Sitwell, unseen by the audience, recited the poems
through a megaphone-shaped mouth that was painted on the curtain. The
instrumentalists who played the music were also hidden from the audience.
The affair attracted a great deal of attention and Walton's name, for the
first time, became widely known.
Music from Facade has been arranged by the composer as two orchestral suites
for flute, piccolo, oboes, English horn (or alto saxophone), clarinets,
bassoons, horns, trumpets, trombone, percussion and strings. "Polka" is
from the First Suite; "Country Dance" and "Popular Song" from the Second Suite,
At the children's concert the orchestra will play the three dances as scored
in these Suites.
Rather than analyzing this delightful dance music, let the children hear it
many times, and make their own suggestions on what to do with it. Creating
original dance movements; painting or finger painting; making hats or costumes
to suggest the humor of the polka and country dance; making up their own
original poems. You may want to read the original Sitwell poetry to them if
they are old enough to appreciate the humor.
About the Composer
...Sir William Walton was born at Oldham in Lancashire in 1902
...Both his parents were singing teachers. His father was the choirmaster
of the local church, and gave him his first music lessons
...William was a very musical child and could sing complete airs of Handel
before he could speak.
...He joined his father's choir as a regular member when he was only five,
and soon after that he began taking lessons on the violin.
...When he was ten, William, won a scholarship and became a choirboy at
Christ Church, Oxford. In Oxford he heard a symphony orchestra for the
first time, and was so impressed that he immediately decided to become
a composer. As young as he was he started writing huge choral works that
filled page after page of manuscript paper.
...At sixteen he became an undergraduate at Christ Church, the youngest
student ever to do so, and composed a Piano Quartet which was published
in 1924. Even before this he had written a string quartet which was per-
formed at a festival of modern music in Salzburg.
...Walton is not a prolific composer, but his works include two symphonies,
three concertos, two concert overtures, marches written for the Coronations
of George VI and Elizabeth II, a very successful cantata entitled Belshazzar's
Feast, and an opera, Troilus and Cressida.
...A few months before the outbreak of World War II, Walton visited the United
States, and planned to go back again for a performance of his Concerto for
Violin and Orchestra. Instead, he enlisted in the British Army and was
assigned to the Ambulance Corps in London.
...Since the end of the War he has written only a few works
...in 1949 he was married to Susana Gil Passo in Buenos Aires. Because of
a legacy bequeathed to him by a friend, writing music for films and imp-
important scores for motion pictures he has complete financial independence.
...In 1951, in recognition of his musical achievements, the British government
bestowed knighthood on Walton.
FACADE, AN ENTERTAINMENT Music by William Walton ~~
Poetry by Edith Sitwell
1. Popular Song
Lily 0' Grady,
Silly and shady,
Longing to be
A lazy lady ,
Walked by the cupolas, gables in the
Lake's Georgian stables,
In a fairy tale like the heat intense,
And the mist in the woods when across the fence
The children gathering strawberries
Are changed by the heat into negresses,
Though their fair hair
Like gold-haired planets, Calliope, Io ,
Pomona, Antiope, Echo, and Clio.
Then Lily 0' Grady,
Silly and shady,
Sauntered along like a
Beside the waves' haycocks her gown with tucks
Was of satin the colour of shining green ducks,
And her fol-de-rol
Was a great gold sun o'er the haycocks shining,
But she was a negress black as the shade
That time on the brightest lady laid.
Then a satyr, dog-haired as trunks of trees,
Began to flatter, began to tease,
And she ran like the nymphs with golden foot
That trampled the strawberry, buttercup root,
In the thick gold dew as bright as the mesh
Of dead Panope's golden flesh,
Made from the music whence were born
Memphis and Thebes in the first hot morn,
— And ran, to wake
In the lake,
Where the water-ripples seem hay to rake,
Round rose-bubbling Victorine,
And the other fish
Express a wish
For mastic mantles and gowns with a swish;
And bright and slight as the posies
Of buttercups and of roses,
And buds of the wild-wood lilies
They chase her, as frisky as fillies.
The red retriever-haired satyr
Can whine and tease her and flatter,
But Lily 0' Grady,
Silly and shady,
In the deep shade is a lazy lady;
Now Pompey's dead, Homer's read,
Heliogabalus lost his head,
And shade is on the brightest wing,
And dust forbids the bird to sing.
2. Country Dance
THAT hobnailed goblin, the bob-tailed Hob,
Said, "It is time I began to rob,"
For strawberries bob, hob-nob with the pearls
Of cream (like the curls of the dairy girls) ,
And flushed with the heat and frutish-ripe
Are the gowns of the maids who dance to the pipe.
Chase a maid?
"Go gather a bob-cherry kiss from a tree
But don't, I prithee, come bothering me!"
She said —
As she fled.
The snouted satyrs drink clouted cream
'Neath the chestnut-trees as thick as a dream;
So I went
And I lent ,
Where none but the doltish coltish wind
Nuzzled my hand for what it could find.
As it neighed,
"Don't touch me, sir, don't touch me, I say,
You'll tumble my strawberries into the hay.
Those snow-mounds of silver that beem the spring,
Has sucked his sweetness from, I will bring
With fair-haired plants and with apples chill
For the great god Pan's high altar... I '11 spill
So, in fun,
We rolled on the grass and began to run,
Chasing that gaudy satyr the Sun;
Over the haycocks , away we ran
Crying, "Here be berries as sunburnt as Pan!"
Has seen us. . .
He runs like the rough satyr Sun.
" 'Tra la la la-
See me dance the polka,'
Said Mr. Wagg like a bear,
'With my top hat
And my whiskers that —
(Tra la la la) trap the fair.
Where the waves seem chiming haycocks
I dance the polka; there
Stand Venus' children in their gay frocks, —
Maroon and marine, — and stare
To see me fire my pistol
Through the distance blue as my coat;
Like Wellington, Byron, the Marquis of Bristol,
Buzbied great trees float.
Where the wheezing hurdy-gurdy
Of the marine wind blows me
To the tune of Annie Rooney, sturdy,
Over the sheafs of the sea;
And bright as a seedman's packet
With zinnias, candytufts chill,
Is Mrs. Marigold's jacket
As she gapes at the inn door still,
Where at dawn in the box of the sailor,
Blue as the decks of the sea,
Nelson awoke, crowed like the cocks,
Then back to the dust sank he.
And Robinson Crusoe
The bright and foxy beer, —
But he finds fresh isles in a negress ' smiles, —
(The poxy doxy dear,)
As they watch me dance the polka, '
Said Mr. Wagg, like a bear,
'In my top hat and my whiskers that, —
Tra la la la, trap the fair.
Tra la la la la, la,
Tra la la la la, la,
Tra la la la la, la la
STATE LIBRARY OF NORTH CAROLINA
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